The Islamic View on Determinism
Determinism as a doctrine implies that an external will is responsible for all actions and events in the universe. It is vital in Islam as it directly links to the meaning of Islam, which is surrendering to the Will of Allah. Determinism, referred to as Qadar in Arabic, is the sixth pillar of Islamic faith, which means fate or divine destiny. One is not a Muslim until they submit to Allah’s divine decree.
Muslims use the phrase, Insha’Allah in their speech to refer to the future. This is said to appreciate the fact that everything that happens is in God’s knowledge. According to Islam, god documented all actions in a book called al-‘lauhu-lmahfuz. Only supplication can change these records.
Reconciling the idea of determinism with that of free will has proven to be a difficult task for philosophers and theologians for many centuries. According to the Quran, which is the most authentic scripture for Muslims, human will is independent of all forms of compulsion. Human beings are responsible for their decisions and their actions will be subjected to judgment, Quran chapter 6, verse 104. Independence of human will is, however, limited by certain laws of causation as explained in chapter 6, verse 25, and 7:128 of the holy book.